Is It Correct to Use “And Therefore”? (+Comma Rules)

“And therefore” is a surprisingly useful phrase in writing. You can use it as a conjunctive adverb, but you need to know how it works and how to punctuate it. This article will explain everything you need to know before using the phrase correctly.

Is It Correct to Use “And Therefore”?

“And therefore” is correct because it uses a coordinating conjunctive (and) before the adverb “therefore.” This is done when you want to combine two independent clauses into one sentence. Without “and,” “therefore” would have to start a new sentence.

and therefore

To help you see what this means, you can refer to these examples:

  • I was not going to go. Therefore, I took it upon myself to break the news.
  • I was not going to go and therefore took it upon myself to break the news.

There are very subtle differences between these phrases. The first requires “therefore” to start a new sentence because it introduces a new independent clause.

The second is more streamlined. It only needs one sentence because “and” connects the two clauses. It also allows you to remove the subject from the second independent clause because it’s already included in the first.

Is “And Therefore” a Conjunction?

“And therefore” is not a conjunction. It’s similar, but the only conjunction in the phrase is “and.”

“And” is a conjunction, and “therefore” is an adverb. When these two constructs come together, they form a coordinating adverb.

It’s common to use “and therefore” to connect two sentences. If “and” wasn’t present, you would need to start a new sentence or include a semi-colon. If “therefore” wasn’t present, your clause would likely lose the meaning that “and therefore” provides.

Comma Before “And Therefore”?

Comma rules can be tricky to get right when using “and therefore.” “Therefore” is very dependent on punctuation, while “and” tends to avoid it in most sentences. When you put the two together, things get confusing.

You should place a comma before “and therefore” when reintroducing the subject in the second clause. This isn’t required, but it could help you to stress the subject of the sentence to the reader.

Here’s how it looks:

  • I will do this later, and therefore I will spend more time on it.

As you can see, “I” is in the first and second clauses of the same sentence. This means that a comma must come before “and therefore” to introduce the new clause.

Incidentally, if you removed the second subject, you can leave the comma out as well:

  • I will do this later and therefore will spend more time on it.

Here are some other examples to show you how to place the comma before “and therefore:”

  • I told you that you’d be better off avoiding the situation, and therefore I was right to talk to you about it.
  • They didn’t want to tell me how to behave, and therefore they decided it was best to leave me out.
  • I could have done this myself, and therefore I would have had a much clearer understanding.
  • This could have gone badly, and therefore I am glad that things worked out better for us.

Comma After “And Therefore”?

You can place a comma after “and therefore” in some situations. It’s mainly based on style or personal choices.

You may place a comma after “and therefore” when reusing the same subject in the second clause and emphasising it. The comma allows the reader to pause briefly before continuing with the second independent clause.

These examples will help you get to grips with placing the comma after “and therefore:”

  • I would have been better off alone, and therefore, I think it’s for the best if you left me.
  • She wanted to be the one to say something, and therefore, she told you what she wanted to happen.
  • This could have been avoided with a bit of decency, and therefore, I regret that this had to happen.
  • I thought about it for a while, and therefore, I decided it was time for me to come back.

It’s never correct to include “and therefore” in this form without a comma also coming beforehand. You won’t find a situation when a comma comes after “and therefore,” but not before.

So, if you’re going to place a comma after “and therefore,” ensure you also place one before to include the conjunctive adverb correctly.

Comma In-Between “And Therefore”?

It’s common for commas to appear in between “and therefore” in sentences where the emphasis is required.

“And therefore” in the middle of a sentence can be punctuated in many ways, but placing a comma in between the words allows you to emphasise specific parts of the phrase.It also allows the reader to pause while reading it.

You should place a comma in between “and therefore” when using two different subjects in the independent clauses. If you use a secondary subject in the second clause, the commas between “and therefore” help to demonstrate the change.

Let’s imagine that the first subject is “I” and the second subject is “we:”

  • I want to go, and, therefore, we have to go together.

Since “I” and “we” are not the same people, you can place commas in between “and therefore” to allow for a smoother transition in your sentence.

These examples should clear up how to place commas in between “and therefore:”

  • She will not talk to you about it right now, and, therefore, I am going to find something better to do with my time.
  • The children did not think to go, and, therefore, the decision was made for them.
  • It was made much easier once I looked into it, and, therefore, we believe we have stumbled across the answer.
  • I am not trying to alienate you, and, therefore, we would all appreciate it if you could come back to enlighten us.

And Therefore – Synonyms

  • So
  • Which is why
  • Therefore
  • As a result
  • Furthermore
  • For that reason
  • Subsequently

Final Thoughts

“And therefore” is a conjunctive adverb that groups two independent clauses. You can use it with a comma before or after, as long as the same subject is included in the second clause. Commas can also go in between the phrase if you use a different subject in the second clause.